Heian Period-Heian Jidai (794-1185)
Jidai is the Japanese word for time period or epoch.
The imperial power and the court are moved to Heian (Kyoto). The Heian period was initially a peaceful period, a golden age for art and literature above all. Now the first known combat techniques also arise.
In the 12th century, the samurai class, the new warrior nobility, emerged. The provinces were ruled by daimyo, county lords. These came to become the leader of buke, the new warrior nobility.
During this time, the most common warrior was a mounted archer.
The lifestyle and philosophy of the samurai during this time was also called Kyuba no Michi, the way of the bow and the horse.
The samurai used the long sword, tachi, with the edge hanging down.
The Heian period ended with the Genpei War (1180-1185) between the two ruling clans, the Taira (Heike) and the Minamoto (Genji). The war ends with the victory of Minamoto no Yoritomo and his appointment as shogun (military commander-in-chief and dictator) in 1192. This marking the end of the Imperial Era and the beginning of the Shogunate periods.
Shogun was the name from the beginning
on the commander who led campaigns against the Japanese indigenous population, the Ainu.